10 Interesting Facts About Your Digestive System (2023)

Digestive Health

By

Barbara Bolen, PhD

10 Interesting Facts About Your Digestive System (1)

Barbara Bolen, PhD

Barbara Bolen, PhD, is a licensed clinical psychologist and health coach. She has written multiple books focused on living with irritable bowel syndrome.

Learn about our editorial process

Updated on March 25, 2020

Medically reviewed

Verywell Health articles are reviewed by board-certified physicians and healthcare professionals. These medical reviewers confirm the content is thorough and accurate, reflecting the latest evidence-based research. Content is reviewed before publication and upon substantial updates. Learn more.

by

Robert Burakoff, MD, MPH

(Video) Facts About your Digestive System | how your digestive system works

10 Interesting Facts About Your Digestive System (2)

Medically reviewed byRobert Burakoff, MD, MPH

Robert Burakoff, MD, MPH, is board-certified in gastroentrology. He is the vice chair for ambulatory services for the department of medicine at Weill Cornell Medical College in New York.

Like most things related to our bodies, we only pay attention to our digestive system when it's giving us a problem. Otherwise, we tend to overlook it and put all sorts of things into it without a second thought. Although we learn about the process of digestion in high school, most of us had other things on our minds back then. But knowing how your digestive system is supposed to work can help tremendously in terms of overall digestive health—knowledge which can help you take better care of your digestive system, more quickly identify any possible digestive problems, and help you to communicate more effectively with your healthcare provider.

Your Digestive System Is Surprisingly Long

10 Interesting Facts About Your Digestive System (3)

The length of your entire digestive system from the mouth to anus isapproximately 30 feet long.

Your digestive system is responsible for breaking down the foods you eat so that you can absorb vital nutrients. Food is broken down mechanically—through chewing, for example, and through the use of enzymes—into the form of molecules that can be absorbed by and moved through your blood. Your digestive system is made up of the following organs:

  • Mouth
  • Esophagus
  • Stomach
  • Liver
  • Gallbladder
  • Biliary Tract
  • Small Intestine
  • Large Intestine

You Produce a Lot of Saliva

Our mouths secrete approximately one liter of saliva a day.

Saliva production through our salivary glands is the first step in digestion. Saliva is predominantly made up of water, but does contain other substances, and can be stimulated by just thinking about or smelling food. Food breakdown begins in our mouths through the process of chewingand through enzymes present in saliva. Saliva both lubricates food for easy passage into the esophagus and coats the food to protect our teeth and the lining of our mouth and esophagus.

Swallowing Is a Pretty Complex Operation

It takes anywhere from two to five seconds for food to make its way down your esophagus into your stomach.

After we've chewed our food, it's formed into something called a bolus. Swallowing is a complex procedure in which the bolus is moved into the pharynxasthe larynx (the organ connected to our windpipe) is coveredand the esophagus opening is widened to accept the bolus. The bolus is then moved down through the esophagus through coordinated muscle movements known as peristalsis.

The esophagus is bound on each end by a sphincter muscle, which is responsible for an opening to allow the bolus to pass through. Heartburn can occur when the lower esophageal sphincter fails to close completely, allowing stomach acid to travel upward and irritate the tissue in the esophagus and throat.

Your Stomach Produces Hydrochloric Acid

...the same stuff that masons use to clean bricks.

(Video) 25 Stomach Churning Facts About The Human Digestive System To Gross You Out!

Luckily, our stomachs are lined by a thick layer of mucus to protect us from the acid and the enzyme pepsin that it produces. The mixing motion of the stomach, along with the acid and the breakdown of protein by the pepsin, turns the bolus into a liquid substance called chyme, which in turn is then slowly released into the small intestine. For a full meal, this process takes approximately two to three hours.

Only a few things are absorbed into the bloodstream at the level of the stomach, and interestingly, these are the very things that can cause stomach irritation: alcohol, aspirin, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

Your Pancreas and Liver Are Not so Mysterious

The primary role of both your pancreas and liver is to produce substances that break down the foods you eat.

As the chyme makes its way into your small intestine, it's met with juices produced by the liver and the pancreas. The liver produces bile, which is stored in the gallbladder and then released into the small intestine to break down fats, while the pancreas secretes enzymes into the small intestine that break down protein, carbohydrates, and fats. The pancreas also releases a substance called bicarbonate that neutralizes any acid that's made its way out of the stomach.

So Much Happens in Your Small Intestine

Your small intestine is where almost all of the absorption of nutrients from the foods we eat takes place.

The small intestine is where the most important work of digestion takes place, that of further breaking down the food we eat into molecular components that can be absorbed into the bloodstream. You may remember from high school biology that the small intestine has three parts: the duodenum, the jejunum and the ileum. Bile from the gallbladder and digestive enzymes from the pancreas are mixed into the chyme in the duodenum. The final breakdown and absorption of nutrients occur in the second two parts.

Absorption of nutrients is conducted by microscopic projections along the lining of the small intestine called villi. Celiac disease is a disorder in which the ingestion of gluten results in damage to the villi, which in turn can lead to health problems stemming from the lack of absorption of vital nutrients.

Fiber Is Very Important

Fiber is what is left over when all the other parts of food have been digested.

Once the small intestine has completed its breakdown of food and absorption of nutrients, it propels the undigested parts of plant food, known as fiber, into the large intestine. Fiber is classified into two general types: soluble, which dissolves in water, and insoluble, which does not. Fiber both softens and bulks up the stool and affects the health of your gut bacteria which play a role in supporting your immune system. Thus dietary fiber is essential for both digestive and overall health.

How Much You Drink Affects the Look and Texture of Stool

Your colon, otherwise known as your large intestine, is a long, hollow organ that is typically about five feet long. A tortuous colon is one that is longer than normal. In order for this longer tube to fit in your abdomen, the colon ends up with extra twists and turns. This condition is relatively rare.

Your large intestine receives about one quart of liquid a dayfrom the small intestine.

In addition to fiber, the small intestine propels liquid into your large intestine, where it's absorbed and stools are formed. Drinking adequate amounts of water help to keep your stool soft and therefore contributing to a comfortable bowel movement. When you don't drink enough water, water is drawn out of the fecal matter within your colon, with the result of hard, difficult-to-pass stools.

The large intestine is made up of the ascending colon, the transverse colon, the descending colon, the sigmoid colon, and the rectum. Although there's great variation in frequency, the stool is in general moved once or twice a day into the rectum in preparation for a bowel movement.

There's a Whole Other World in There

Your GI system plays host to more than 500 species of bacteria.

We are not born with any bacteria in our digestive systems, but develop a significant population within the first month, most of which can be found in our large intestine.

Recognition of the role that bacteria play in digestive health has stimulated booming sales of products containing probiotics, often labeled as "friendly bacteria." Bacteria fight off disease-carrying organisms, play a role in absorbing nutrients that slip past the small intestine through fermentation, and help to support our immune systems. You're most acutely aware of the work of bacteria when its process of fermentation causes you to experience intestinal gas.

(Video) Facts about our Digestive System

Small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is a health condition in which too many bacteria are present in the small intestine. SIBO has been theorized as a possible factor in the development of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)for some individuals.

Your Body Actually Has Two Brains

Your digestive system has its own little mini-brain.

The functioning of the digestive system is regulated by the enteric nervous system (ENS), which is made up of a tremendous amount of nerve cells and is regulated by the same neurotransmitters, most notably serotonin, found in the brain. This similarity has earned the ENS the title of the "Second Brain."

Your brain and digestive system work in close partnership, a phenomenon that you have first-hand knowledge of any time your stomach flips when you think of something anxiety-provoking—or more dramatically if you experience diarrhea when you are stressed. This collaboration is thought to be essential to our survival as a species; although digestion is essential for life, dealing with threats is just as necessary. The body developed the "flight or fight" system to divert resources away from the digestive system to the systems of the body needed to fight off or run away from things that might do us harm. Dysfunction in the brain-gut connection has been theorized to play a role in the development of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGDs).

3 Sources

Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.

  1. Makki K, Deehan EC, Walter J, Bäckhed F. The Impact of Dietary Fiber on Gut Microbiota in Host Health and Disease. Cell Host Microbe. 2018;23(6):705-715. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2018.05.012

  2. Choi CH, Chang SK. Role of Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth in Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders. J Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2016;22(1):3-5. doi: 10.5056/jnm15196

  3. Whitfield KL, Shulman RJ. Treatment options for functional gastrointestinal disorders: from empiric to complementary approaches. Pediatr Ann. 2009;38(5):288-90, 292-4.

Additional Reading

10 Interesting Facts About Your Digestive System (4)

By Barbara Bolen, PhD
Barbara Bolen, PhD, is a licensed clinical psychologist and health coach. She has written multiple books focused on living with irritable bowel syndrome.

See Our Editorial Process

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(Video) How your digestive system works - Emma Bryce

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(Video) Facts about the Digestive System

FAQs

What is an interesting fact about the digestive system? ›

Most of the digestion process is done in the small intestine. Over 90% of digestion and absorption of nutrients takes place here. Your entire digestive tract is less than 30 ft long. Your pancreas and your liver produce enzymes to help you break down food.

What are the 10 human digestive system? ›

The main organs that make up the digestive system (in order of their function) are the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus. Helping them along the way are the pancreas, gall bladder and liver.

What is the most interesting about digestive system? ›

Your body can move your food through the digestive system even while you are standing on your head. It is not connected to gravity because it works with muscles.

What are 5 interesting facts about the stomach? ›

9 Amazing, Weird Facts About Your Gut
  • The acid in your stomach is strong enough to burn your skin. ...
  • Certain bacteria and drugs can cause ulcers. ...
  • Stomach cancer was No. ...
  • You have detergents in your intestines. ...
  • Cholesterol and fats are completely different. ...
  • Most people with “gluten intolerance” don't have celiac disease.
12 Nov 2020

What are the 7 steps of digestion? ›

Figure 2: The digestive processes are ingestion, propulsion, mechanical digestion, chemical digestion, absorption, and defecation.

How long is your digestive system? ›

It's also the longest, measuring 16 to 20 feet (5 to 6 meters) long.

What are the 3 importance of digestive system? ›

Digestion is important for breaking down food into nutrients, which the body uses for energy, growth, and cell repair.

How fast is your digestive system? ›

After you eat, it takes about six to eight hours for food to pass through your stomach and small intestine. Food then enters your large intestine (colon) for further digestion, absorption of water and, finally, elimination of undigested food. It takes about 36 hours for food to move through the entire colon.

What are the 14 parts of digestive system? ›

The major parts of the digestive system:
  • Salivary glands.
  • Pharynx.
  • Esophagus.
  • Stomach.
  • Small Intestine.
  • Large Intestine.
  • Rectum.
  • Accessory digestive organs: liver, gallbladder, pancreas.

What are the 7 functions of the digestive system? ›

The digestive system functions to provide mechanical processing, digestion, absorption of food, secretion of water, acids, enzymes, buffer, salt, and excretion of waste products.

What are the 6 main functions of the digestive system? ›

The digestive system prepares nutrients for utilization by body cells through six activities, or functions.
  • Ingestion. The first activity of the digestive system is to take in food through the mouth. ...
  • Mechanical Digestion. ...
  • Chemical Digestion. ...
  • Movements. ...
  • Absorption. ...
  • Elimination.

What's a fun fact for the day? ›

Fun Facts and Trivia
  • It is impossible for most people to lick their own elbow. ...
  • A crocodile cannot stick its tongue out.
  • A shrimp's heart is in its head.
  • It is physically impossible for pigs to look up into the sky.

What are 5 facts about the liver? ›

5 facts about the liver
  • It's larger than most people realise. ...
  • It performs hundreds of jobs. ...
  • A healthy liver helps keep your brain healthy. ...
  • The liver is like an elastic band. ...
  • Look after your liver and it will look after you.

What are 2 facts about the stomach? ›

It is a bean-shaped and sack-like structure which is located behind the lower ribs and between the esophagus and small intestine. The main function of the stomach is to secrete gastric juices, digests and store food molecules. On an average, the stomach can hold more than a quarter-gallon or half-pound of food.

How big is the stomach? ›

Your empty stomach is about 12 inches long by 6 inches across at its widest point. As an adult, your stomach can expand to hold about 1 quart of food. When you stretch your stomach with a lot of food, it doesn't stay that way or stretch out. It simply goes back to its previous size once it digests your food.

Did you know facts about human? ›

  • Your eyes blink around 20 times a minute. ...
  • Your ears never stop growing!
  • Earwax is actually a type of sweat! ...
  • The tongue is covered in about 8,000 taste-buds, each containing up to 100 cells helping you taste your food!
  • You produce about 40,000 litres of spit in your lifetime.

What is called digestive system? ›

The digestive system includes the mouth, pharynx (throat), esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus. It also includes the salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas, which make digestive juices and enzymes that help the body digest food and liquids.

How does digestion take place? ›

The digestive process starts in your mouth when you chew. Your salivary glands make saliva, a digestive juice, which moistens food so it moves more easily through your esophagus into your stomach. Saliva also has an enzyme that begins to break down starches in your food. Esophagus.

Where does digestion begin? ›

The digestive process begins in the mouth. Even before eating begins, the anticipation of eating stimulates glands in the mouth to produce saliva.

What food digests the fastest? ›

Amount and type of food eaten: Protein-rich foods and fatty foods, such as meat and fish, can take longer to digest than high-fiber foods, such as fruits and vegetables. Sweets, such as candy, crackers, and pastries, are among the fastest foods digested.

Can you digest food too fast? ›

Dumping syndrome is a condition in which food, especially food high in sugar, moves from your stomach into your small bowel too quickly after you eat. Sometimes called rapid gastric emptying, dumping syndrome most often occurs as a result of surgery on your stomach or esophagus.

What food takes the longest to digest? ›

The foods with the longest time to digest are bacon, beef, lamb, whole milk hard cheese, and nuts. These foods take an average of about 4 hours for your body to digest. The digestion process still occurs even when asleep. Which means our digestive fluids and the acids in our stomach are active.

What is a healthy digestive system? ›

A healthy digestive system is one where the gastrointestinal tract can produce digestive enzymes, includes beneficial gut bacteria, efficiently absorb nutrients, prevent the growth of pathogenic bacteria, and eliminate toxins and unwanted substances.

What are the two types of digestion? ›

Digestion is a form of catabolism or breaking down of substances that involves two separate processes: mechanical digestion and chemical digestion.

What keeps your digestive system healthy? ›

One of the best ways to improve your digestive health is by maintaining a diet that is high in fiber and rich in fruits, vegetables, legumes and whole grains. This keeps the normal process of digestion running smoothly, helping to prevent constipation and maintain a healthy weight.

What foods do not digest? ›

Examples of high-fiber food particles that often remain largely undigested include:
  • beans.
  • corn.
  • grains, such as quinoa.
  • peas.
  • seeds, like sunflower seeds, flax seeds, or sesame seeds.
  • skins of vegetables, such as bell peppers or tomatoes.

How long does water take to digest? ›

Unlike foods, water can be “digested” in as little as 5 minutes. Excess water leaves your body through urination and feces but is also excreted by sweating. Your body uses water for many of its daily processes, and since it passes through your body so quickly, it's important to stay hydrated.

What are the 8 major organs of the digestive system? ›

The alimentary tract of the digestive system is composed of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, rectum and anus.

What is digestion Class 10? ›

Digestion- mechanical and chemical reduction of ingested nutrients which can be then converted to energy for use. Human digestive system- consists of the long alimentary canal that includes mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus.

How long is the small intestine? ›

How long is the small intestine? The small intestine is by far the longest section of the gastrointestinal tract, about 22 feet long. The lining also has a vast surface area that's scrunched into folds and peaks.

Where does digestion end? ›

The broken-down food is then absorbed into the bloodstream from the small intestine and the nutrients are carried to each cell in the body. The digestive tract begins at the mouth and ends at the anus.

What are the types of digestive system? ›

The four basic types of digestive systems in animals are monogastric, avian, ruminant, and pseudo-ruminant.

What is digestion short answer? ›

Digestion is the complex process of turning the food you eat into nutrients, which the body uses for energy, growth and cell repair needed to survive. The digestion process also involves creating waste to be eliminated.

How strong is stomach acid? ›

The pH of gastric acid in humans is 1.5-2.0. According to a report summarized by Beasley et al[6], the pH level is much lower than that of most animals, including anthropoids (≥ 3.0), and very close to that of carrion-eating animals called scavengers, such as falconine birds and vultures[6].

What happens when eating? ›

When we eat, food passes down the oesophagus and into the stomach, where gastric (digestive) juices break it down further into a porridge-like consistency. The partly digested food then moves through the small intestine (also known as the small bowel).

Did you know facts about food? ›

Here are 10 amusing facts about food that will blow up your mind!
  • During 1800s, it was believed that ketchup has medicinal qualities. ...
  • Chicken contains 266 percent more fat than it did 50 years ago. ...
  • The most stolen food in the world is 'cheese'. ...
  • Peanuts can be used to make dynamite. ...
  • Chocolate was once used as currency.
12 Sept 2020

Did U know scary facts? ›

Scary Facts to Make Your Skin Crawl
  • Humans shed skin too. Like, a lot of skin. ...
  • We could solve American homelessness easier than you think. On average, there are over 17,000,000 vacant homes in America at any given time. ...
  • Your cellphone is more disgusting than a public toilet.
4 May 2020

Did u know facts for kids? ›

Random Fun Facts for Kids
  • Most people cannot lick their elbows. ( ...
  • You cannot sneeze with your eyes open. ( ...
  • The Olympics used to give medals for art, not just sports.
  • A jar of Nutella is sold every 2.5 seconds.
  • French fries are Belgian, not French.
12 Aug 2021

Did you know facts for 7 year olds? ›

Amazing you
  • Your body has more than 600 muscles in it. ...
  • Every day a little bit of your skin dries up and falls off, becoming dust. ...
  • Your eyes blink all day long to keep them clean.
  • Each of your hands has 14 finger bones.
  • After about age 30, people start shrinking – they get a bit shorter every year.

What are 3 unusual facts? ›

Cool Weird Facts About Humans

Your brain uses 10 watts of energy to think and does not feel pain. Your fingernails grow faster when you are cold. A typical cough is 60 mph while a sneeze is often faster than 100 mph. Your feet typically produce a pint of sweat every single day.

Did you know facts about love? ›

35 Facts About Love That Will Make Your Heart Smile
  • Falling in love is like being on drugs. ...
  • Hugging your partner is an instant stress reliever. ...
  • A happy heart is a healthy heart. ...
  • Animals commit to monogamous relationships, too. ...
  • Couples' heartbeats synchronize. ...
  • Being in love is the number one reason why people wed.

Which is the biggest organ in our body? ›

The skin is the body's largest organ.

What are 5 facts about the kidney? ›

Interesting Facts About The Kidneys
  • You Only Need 1 Kidney to Live. While most people have two kidneys, you only need one functioning kidney to lead a healthy life. ...
  • Your Kidneys Pump More than 50 Gallons of Blood Daily. ...
  • They Regulate Your Body's Salt Content. ...
  • Primary Care in Ridgecrest, California.
2 Mar 2021

Can you live without a liver? ›

You can't live without a working liver. If your liver stops working properly, you may need a transplant. A liver transplant may be recommended if you have end-stage liver disease (chronic liver failure). This is a serious, life-threatening liver disease.

What's a fun fact for the day? ›

Fun Facts and Trivia
  • It is impossible for most people to lick their own elbow. ...
  • A crocodile cannot stick its tongue out.
  • A shrimp's heart is in its head.
  • It is physically impossible for pigs to look up into the sky.

What is the digestive system for kids? ›

The different organs, or body parts, that are involved in this process make up the digestive system. of the digestive system are the mouth, the pharynx, the esophagus, the stomach, and the small and large intestines. The liver, the gall bladder, and the pancreas also help in the process of digestion.

Are your intestines 5 times longer than your height? ›

Your intestines are about five times longer than your height. Food doesn't need gravity to reach your stomach. Your stomach does most of the digestion. During your lifetime your digestive system will handle about 90 tonnes of food and drink.

Did U know scary facts? ›

Scary Facts to Make Your Skin Crawl
  • Humans shed skin too. Like, a lot of skin. ...
  • We could solve American homelessness easier than you think. On average, there are over 17,000,000 vacant homes in America at any given time. ...
  • Your cellphone is more disgusting than a public toilet.
4 May 2020

Did you know facts for 7 year olds? ›

Amazing you
  • Your body has more than 600 muscles in it. ...
  • Every day a little bit of your skin dries up and falls off, becoming dust. ...
  • Your eyes blink all day long to keep them clean.
  • Each of your hands has 14 finger bones.
  • After about age 30, people start shrinking – they get a bit shorter every year.

Did you know facts about food? ›

Here are 10 amusing facts about food that will blow up your mind!
  • During 1800s, it was believed that ketchup has medicinal qualities. ...
  • Chicken contains 266 percent more fat than it did 50 years ago. ...
  • The most stolen food in the world is 'cheese'. ...
  • Peanuts can be used to make dynamite. ...
  • Chocolate was once used as currency.
12 Sept 2020

Why digestive system is weak? ›

Such problems can be the result of bacteria in food, infection, stress, certain medications, or chronic medical conditions such as colitis, Crohn's disease, and IBS. But no matter the cause, anyone who has frequent digestive problems faces daily challenges and potential embarrassments.

Why is it hard to digest food? ›

A damaged vagus nerve can't send signals normally to your stomach muscles. This may cause food to remain in your stomach longer, rather than move into your small intestine to be digested. The vagus nerve and its branches can be damaged by diseases, such as diabetes, or by surgery to the stomach or small intestine.

How big is a stomach? ›

Most adults have roughly the same size stomach, even though people can weigh different amounts. Your empty stomach is about 12 inches long by 6 inches across at its widest point. As an adult, your stomach can expand to hold about 1 quart of food.

How long is the digestive system? ›

The alimentary canal is the long tube of organs — including the esophagus, stomach, and intestines — that runs from the mouth to the anus. An adult's digestive tract is about 30 feet (about 9 meters) long.

What happens after I eat? ›

After you swallow, peristalsis pushes the food down your esophagus into your stomach. Stomach. Glands in your stomach lining make stomach acid and enzymes that break down food. Muscles of your stomach mix the food with these digestive juices.

How much can the stomach hold? ›

How much can your stomach hold? As an adult, your stomach has a capacity of about 2.5 ounces when empty and relaxed. It can expand to hold about 1 quart of food.

How big is a colon? ›

The large intestine is about six feet long — much shorter than the small intestine, which is 22 feet. It's called the large intestine because it's wider — about three inches, while the small intestine is only one inch in diameter.

How much can your intestines hold? ›

According to colon cleanse providers (colonic hygienists), an adult can have between 5 and 20 pounds of residual stool in their large intestine (colon), leading to health problems such as excess weight gain, fatigue, and brain fog. But scientific evidence doesn't support this myth.

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